By Marco Carrera

“Usually, when people are sad, they don’t do anything. They just cry over their condition. But when they get angry, they bring about a change.”[1] From the beginning of the United States, African American people have been considered to be inferior to the white man even though African Americans fought for this nation in every major war the United States was involved. Many laws have been approved in the US history that degrade African Americans, from the black codes of the South which were oppressive codes that forbade interracial marriage, excluded blacks from public duties, to the Jim Crow laws that established separate but equal, which in reality was never so. These laws were a major reason for many to look for new opportunities in a different part of the nation.

In the early part of the 20th century about 1.6 million African Americans made their way to the north and west, where they hoped to escape the inequalities of the South. Most of those who moved out of the south, did it during the post-World War I period when the US benefitted from their recent victory. There would be a halt to the immigration do to the 1930’s depression that quickly changed with World War II, when the war gave another economic boost to the nation. With the Defense and Aerospace Industries booming many people made their way to Los Angeles to find work. In addition to the Defense and Aerospace Industries growing, so was home construction, highway construction, and the auto-related industries and services. And despite the hopes of a better life, some of these neighborhoods compositions seemed very familiar to the segregated south. Some were middle class composed of white residents, and the others were lower class, usually composed of black residents and other minorities.

With the closing down of several industries, the differences between both types of neighborhoods became evident. Communities such as Watts and Palos Verdes are an example of the differences that existed between both types of neighborhoods. Palos Verdes primarily occupied by Caucasian citizens, while the other, Watts made up of African Americans. The racial composition was different, and so was the experience of living in each community. Both communities were in need of several necessities, but both had a different way of obtaining them. It is undeniable that education was a necessity that both neighborhoods had, especially higher education. Both communities, Watts and Palos Verdes, became entangled in the struggle for what would be known as the California State University of Dominguez Hills. The path that both took defined the community that they lived in, as one exploded into rebellion while the other took what was considered to be the most civilized path. For many years, the studies of the relationship between the site selection for California State University Dominguez Hills and the Watts rebellion have focused on the economic aspects of the relationship. In analyzing the two events that seemed to be occurring simultaneously and looking into the economic, political, and social-cultural dimensions of both events, I intend to make the argument that the concept of race played a significant contributory role and was an underlying factor in both events and was the driving factor in the final decisions to place the University in its final location.

To understand the process that Watts undertook as it led to the rebellion, we must look at the economic factors that certainly played a significant role. The demographics of the African-American communities went through a major shift as the population exploded. Contributing factors to migration were segregation, increased racism, widespread violence as well as the lack of economic opportunities in the South. In 1890, the African American population in Los Angeles was about 1,258 which made up about 2.5% of the population. By 1920 after the first great migration that number would increase up to 15,579 but yet they still made up only 2.7% of the total population in Los Angeles. This inevitably changes as the defense and aerospace industries would pioneer some jobs that became available in the coast cities. So much so that by 1960 the African American population in Los Angeles was 334,916 now making up 13.5% of the population[2]. Many of which made their way to the pacific coast cities and took jobs in the military, the fire department, the ship production, the defense industry, and the aerospace industry. Many of the servicemen and women from other states received their discharge in California thus adding to the population. There was also a shortage of labor in the factories during the war, and thousands of jobs were available for African Americans. This was a time in which everyone was enjoying the success of the times.

By 1950s the economy centered on the production of missiles, jet aircraft, and space equipment. The state of California in its entirety had become dependent on the aerospace industry. There was a serious problem that soon impacted the aerospace industry, the defense industry depended on political decisions and the defense budget. By the late 1950s, the government approved cuts in defense spending. This in turn led to hard times in particular on those communities that depended on the defense employment. The cut in spending, cause banks to go into bankruptcies; some banks merge to continue in production and asked for loans from the government. By the late 1950s and early 1960s the labor market experienced a shift that seriously affected the prosperity of the black community. As a result there was a steady decline in unionized black labor, blue-collar jobs that were next to the black communities[3].  These communities who were built directly for the service of the manufacturing companies received the most negative impact. Furthermore following the model set by the aerospace, aircraft, and the electronic firms that began to leave the cities to lower their tax burden other businesses started to leave the cities as well. Such as jobs in furniture, metal, electrical, textile, and oil refining machinery industries would leave the suburban communities, which many African American citizens depended on. Similarly middle class residents began to leave, resulting in African American communities to be comprised of lower class and non-professional citizens.

As a result, Watts and other African American communities saw a decline in the jobs that were available. Most of the jobs that African American workers found themselves in were discriminatory jobs that did not offer any promotion practices, even though they were higher to replace white worker who had such opportunities. Even though African American workers organized and created unions, they were not able to gain job security. Additionally, some of the other jobs available were in the food industry, maintenance, welding, and truck driving all jobs that did not have many possibilities for progress[4]. For most of the jobs that did offer opportunities of advancement were usually given to white men and continuously kept from African Americans and categorized as white men’s work. It was these unfair conditions that disillusioned some men from even looking for a job. Finding a job that promised a good future and a way to support your family was already hard enough task, it was further made more complicated with the education that was inaccessible.

Education was certainly an important tool for success that the African American communities were deprived off, and that stunted their advancement in society. Even with the Master Plan for Higher Education[5] which was supposed to provide an upgrade in public education, the fact was that not all received the benefits of this plan. One of the major issues that the communities like Watts faced was the increase in population. Just like the civilian population increase, so did the student population. In 1950, the population of students in California was around 200,000 but by 1970, it had increased to more than a million[6]. The lack of funding resulted in an all-out struggle to acquire the most possible for each school. Unfortunately, for lower income communities this meant that they were the ones at whose expense others benefitted. Even though all the schools were segregated, that did very little in the makeup of the student bodies for some of the schools. As the African American population kept increasing schools like the ones that served the community of Watts became more composed of African American students and less of white students. Furthermore, the privileges that white schools had was not shared with schools like the ones in Watts, many of the schools were not providing the adequate services that the students of a community like Watts needed to succeed[7]. The fact was that the lack of education had an important effect on the community.

With the difficulties that the community of Watts was going through education would have been a valuable tool. About two-thirds of the community had less than a high school education, and there was also a serious problem with adult literacy. About one eight of the citizens of Watts were considered to be illiterate, which was an impediment to learn about their rights. There was a lack of proffesionlas in the community to help improve the community, as well as a lack in job training making the situation detrimental in Watts. Lack of funding and political maneuverings made improvement opportunities unavailable. The fact was any assistance that could have been provided to the community would have proven beneficial. The lack of education and opportunities made the African American youth, feel like they did not belong, that the American dream was not for them but for the white men for whom all the opportunities were available to succeed.

Not only did the community of Watts have to face the fact that education was not available to them, but they also had to deal with their children being labeled. The fact that poverty was rampant in communities like Watts was not a secret, but it was this poverty that categorized the children as disadvantaged children. Although the term was unintended to classify children, it was unavoidable as the children that were labeled as such were primarily black, urban, and poor children[8]. The term disadvantage children entangled in the racist and class aspects of the 1960s that created categorization to define the children. The government sought to address the issue of inequality, and the government blames themselves for the failure of the students. They stated that income level or class should not be the measurement by which a student’s success and or ability should be determined. A question that must come up is what was consider an advantaged child. That was a white, rich, suburban, English speaking child who had an IQ score higher than 84 points[9], everything that an urban black child might not have the possibility to be. Additionally, the environment that the children grew up in also considered to be contributory factors to the lack of performance of the children, but some of the studies that were conducted in the 1960s also concluded that IQ was hereditary thus urban children were predisposed for failure. Even though thanks to the war on poverty programs like head start and preschool had some success, they would inevitably come under question and be abandoned condemning the people of this community to a continuance of lack of education and support necessary for success. Comparatively to how education was inaccessible an important part of the situation of Watts were the social-cultural conditions of the community.

The social-cultural aspects of the community were important in defining how the community of Watts saw themselves, among them, were the living arrangements that they occupied. Watts, one of the poorest residential areas of Los Angeles, had a great composition of public housing, so much so that even the people of that community did not approve of any more public housing in or around the community of Watts. The problem with public housing was that it was intended to be a temporary form of housing. Originally designed to address the issue of lack of housing during the Depression of the 1930s, and also as a way of guaranteeing that soldiers had a home to come to during the war and after the war[10]. These homes lack in their architecture, and there was also a lack of services available. These residences became the projects and even for those who wanted to move out racist mortgage practices and the foul practices by lending agencies restrained them from moving out. Even for those in the community that wanted to feel proud of their community, the negative aspects made it difficult to.

Communities labeled as ghettos were a part of the city in which minorities live usually due to economic, political, and social pressures. The mid-20th century ghetto in Los Angeles was a result of racist housing practices and a widening gap in economic wealth between the upper and lower class. As the higher class exited the urban communities, those left behind were typically poor and part of a minority, in most cases African American. The residents of the community experienced a prolonged period of poverty which affected the community as less wealth was available for community maintenance. The deterioration of the housing was a factor in the reputation the community. Communities like Watts were labeled as ghettoes because of the tarnished conditions that people lived in as well as the socio-economic situation that most residents found themselves. To those in the ghettos this was home, but to the outside, these were nothing but rundown communities.

For many the home is a reflection of one’s self or the family but with homes that were not intended for extended use and whose conditions were nothing short of dreadful by the 1960s it was certainly difficult to be proud of the home. Many citizens of these communities were embarrassed to be part of them because of the ghetto reputation that they had, and could not wait to be finally able to leave[11].  Similarly living Watts represented a lack of control that you had of yourself and the home. With imposing forces like the Housing Authority, police, and street gangs, were restricting figures that did not allow the type of freedom and worry free life that many wanted. Additionally, there was a severe lack of security in these communities. Unlike gated communities who were closed off, the public housing was open and available for all. The community felt fences projected a feeling of being enclosed and kept away from the rest of society. This allowed for intruders to come in and cause trouble, but even the police was considered to be intruders and perhaps more dangerous than any other intruder. The police were accused of unjustified arrest, detentions, beatings and the worst deaths that went unquestioned. The distrust of the police was so that in a survey when asked if police should be brought to increase safety, the answer was that other actions could be taken that would provide more security than the police. Family disintegration was another difficulty they had to deal with.

The fact was that the traditional African American family had a serious transformation from the old patriarchal family to a more matriarchal family. The problem in this for men like Moynihan laid in the fact that most fathers were not around to teach their sons. Not only that, but the absence of the father in the family contributed to the instability of the household. If a father was present but could not provide for his family, that was looked upon as if he was incapable of supporting his family, which caused the father figure frustration and anger. Additional problems happened when single mothers could not control their sons because the children had no respect for them. Furthermore, important traditions were no longer being passed from one generation to next. With so many values such as respect, honor, and pride being lost this would eventually transgress beyond the home. It would become clearly visible on August 11, 1965.

What is the difference between a rebellion and a riot?  A riot is considered to be an unorganized movement which has no real motive. In most cases it is an opportunity to commit looting and other crimes and brings no change. While a rebellion is meant to address injustices, that have affected the community. Rebellion is organized and has a clear goal of the points that need to address. Most importantly a rebellions primary purpose is to bring change; in fact, this would be the case in Watts.

Wednesday, August 11, 1965, a day that would live in infamy. On this day Marquette Frye and his brother Ronald, tried to escape the summer heat that was made worse by the suffocating heat that their homes created. Homes with no air conditioning and little ventilation were cause for them to go out for a drive to try and cool down. Under the suspicion that they were drinking and driving, the boys were pulled over by motorcycle officer Lee Minikus. After a field sobriety test, Frye was handcuffed and placed under arrest. Once their mother, Rena Price arrived, the scene somehow escalated through a series of unfortunate events. All the commotion caused people to notice and come over to find out what exactly was going on. The scene of the police using force to wrestle Frye to the floor was enough to begin an uproar. The uproar caused the arrest of the entire Marquette family, but it was the starting point for six days that would be unforgettable.

This arrest would create a series of protests from the community whose anger had finally exploded. Police cars were rocked, and white drivers cars were taken and flipped over. Once the rebellion moved to the heart of Watts, police were told to stay away from the rebellion zone for their presence would only make the situation worse. Not even the pleas from local leaders were enough to persuade people from using violence. By the next day, Thursday, the looting and burning was already taking place while the police were order to stand there and watch. Many of the businesses that were attacked were owned by people that did not live in the community[12]. The people of the community felt that these owners had stolen from them, so this was just payback for the high prices that they charged. Another problem was that no political official was present Mayor Brown was off on vacation.

The looting for many of those in the community allowed them to gain possession of materials that they would never be able to get a hold of. Many for the first time had a radio that otherwise they would never have. Others were able to get clothing that was never going to be available to them. What many considered the prize possession from looting was a television that for many put them at par with the white man. By the end of the second day of the rebellion, police began to make an arrest and were reinforced by the National Guard the next day. With curfew and continuous patrolling the rebellion was starting to quell. By Monday, August 16 the destruction was evident, and the rebellion was coming to an end. With close to 350,000 that were estimated to have participated and with 34 deaths as a result 1,032 injured and 3,438 also arrested and over $40 million in property damage was some of the results of this rebellion.

The rebellion for many was an opportunity where they finally expressed their frustrations after decades of discrimination. The people had enough of the lack of jobs that were available; some even made the argument that if they had jobs, they would probably not be looting. Additionally, this was an action that the people of Watts hoped would bring attention to the neighborhood. There were many necessities that the community needed to address, from the lack of health care available to living conditions. The community of Watts and those in their proximity did not have a hospital where they could go if they needed medical attention. Also, just as important the people wanted to bring attention to the relationship with the police. The police who were always criticized for the use of excessive force and harassment of African-American men and young adults. All which they felt needed to be addressed by those in charge. Furthermore, the people of the community of Watts felt enclosed from the rest of the city as if they were not part of it and not as important as other neighborhoods[13]. The fact was that a riot is instantaneous and without reason, but the people of the community of Watts had many reasons for their actions. That is why they considered it a rebellion because the actions were a long time coming and had decades of built up, and were intended to bring change to improve the lives of those in the community for they would no longer submit to the slum life.

As the rebellion erupted in Watts, another entirely different issue was culminating only thirteen miles away in the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The community of Watts was rebelling to bring change to their deprived community. While the community of Palos Verdes issue was that they wanted their college in the peninsula. The Palos Verdes Peninsula, like most of the United States, was affected by the depression of the 1930s, but its strong community ties and the residents coming together during the hard times kept the community firm. As World War II begun the community of Palos Verdes not only benefitted from the migration of people from the south but also saw an advantage in being an important strategic location on which many soldiers were stationed. There were three military stations established there, the largest being MacArthur at San Pedro, which also attracted many nurses that came to serve at the station. When the war came to an end, many of those that were stationed there decided to come back and live there. By the 1950s a real estate boom drastically changed the layout of Palos Verdes as hundreds of homes were being built all over the peninsula. By 1957, the city of Rolling Hills Estates was established, and the growth of the peninsula kept increasing.  In fact, what brought families to Palos Verdes was the beauty of the climate, the scenery, the security of a planned and protected community, and the outdoor pleasure that the community was based on. In fact, the reputation of Palos Verdes Estates soon made it seem like a paradise. But for all that this paradise had it was missing the cherry on top, and that was its college. With the Master Plan for Higher Education, the community of Palos Verdes saw an opportunity to obtain that college that they wanted so much. The community of Palos Verdes made their desire known for the college plus they had the financial ability to make it happen.

For the community of Palos Verdes obtaining a college in their peninsula was not going to be halted by economic means. In fact, the community of Palos Verdes was willing to make all the investments needed to obtain the school for there was an economic gain to be made as well from the school. The community would do what was necessary to provide a recreational and park-like atmosphere for those in the community and for any who would visit. This of course was intended to appeal to those that might still be opposed to the idea of the college. Also, the college provided the opportunity to increase the real estate value of the community[14]. As if that was not enough the college would also provide the opportunity for development of condominiums to serve both the school and the community.  Additionally, the college would support local businesses which in turn would bring more money to the community. The fact that even if the college would cost the community some money, it was worth the investment. For the College provided opportunities that otherwise would not have been available, so the accommodation was worth the expense.

Unlike neighboring communities that would not have been able to make all the accommodations possible Palos Verdes had the economic ability to do so and the incentive as well. As a part of attracting the selection of the final site the community of Palos
Verdes intended to beautify what was already considered to be a paradise. Planting trees and adding other embellishments to the city they hope to make the community more attractive. Similarly, there was going to be a significant expense in constructing several roads that would all lead to the college[15]. This without a doubt was going to be a significant expense that not many other communities would have been able to accommodate with, but the Palos Verdes Peninsula was more than willing to find the way. The fact was that they saw the rewards as worth the cost. With the college now placed in this location, it would provide several jobs for the community as staff in the school. Also, the college would increase the property value of the estate of the peninsula, additionally with the prestige that the college brought it would increase the local salaries[16].  The circumstance that Palos Verdes faced from an economic perspective were not as severe as their neighbors, as most of them were already making a comfortable living and were part of the higher class. Plus they were further interested in the benefits that the school brought, even socially this was a popular opinion.

The majority of the people in the community were definitely for the college being part of the community. Many of those that were for the college being part of the community had personal motives about it. Such as Mr. Sidney Melnick who was extremely interested in a college in the South Bay because just like himself his wife was attending El Camino Junior College and upon graduation they wanted to attend a college so this would be perfect for them[17]. Furthermore, they were well informed and thus knew of the funds that had been placed aside for the school and were demanding that the plans for the school move forward. Additionally, there was interest from parents who wanted the best for their children. Marvin A. Rygh, a father of four whose oldest was soon to attend college, was one of those parents[18].  As the children of these families came of age, their parents wanted to assure that their children had somewhere to go to school. So for those who lived in the community having a college in the peninsula was the answer to that problem. In fact, the support of the community for the college was so abundant that even the community members were scouting possible locations for the college. In a letter written to the superintended a community member, Samuel Hetch recommends a piece of land that is available which fits all the regulations, and that would not be affected by the flight path noise[19]. Not only was their support for the school but the college was demanded.

The community of the Palos Verdes Peninsula demanded the decision of the college be taken and that its final locations be on the peninsula. One of the arguments that were made by those in the community was that the population was increasing, and so the need for the college was evident. This was pointed out by Mrs. W. Earl Burris a long time resident of Palos Verdes who witnessed the continued growth of the population, and who felt there was a need for a college to serve the South Bay community.[20]  Even if the population was increasing everywhere else that was irrelevant to those in Palos Verdes because their need was higher according to the community. Furthermore, as more time continued to progress less land was becoming available where the school could be placed. So the citizens of the community, especially those that were in particular interested with the college, began to be concerned about the situation.  They feared that the land was not going to be available and that they may lose the college. So they began to demand that those in charge hurry in making the decision of putting the college in its final site. Such as Alfred J. N. Henriksen, who requested that the legislator uses their influence to secure the site at Palos Verdes because time was going by and too much money had been spent.[21]   The college had serious support behind it the majority of the community wanted the college, and they grew concern about the status of the college several times. Especially when even politics had to be involved to try and assure the college.

Politically there was a struggle to gain the rights to the site selection especially when the selection for the school was not finalized. The community of Palos Verdes by 1963 was growing impatient with the fact that the board of directors had not finalized their decision. This displeasure was further aggravated by the fact that a new site was the prefered one. The Fox Hills site was by 1963 the new preferred site, originally a golf course was located there, but it was a place that was easily accessible and provided plenty of space for the new campus. The community, committees and representatives of Palos Verdes would not take this laying down. They immediately attacked and argued as to why the site on Fox Hills was inadequate for the campus, and it would hold a lower symbolism if it were placed there. Theodore Hallet was one who made such an argument and that Fox Hill site was not suitable for the college.[22] Or Mrs. Pat Spingold, who stated that the 100 acres that Fox Hills offered was not enough to build a proper school.[23]  Especially because the school was going to be built on land which was privately owned. The representatives of the Chamber of Commerce for the Palos Verdes cities and the civic leaders all attended the Chamber of Commerce meeting that was held in Redondo Beach to protest and impose their influence to get the college back to the South Bay. All of these different types of representatives continued to impose tremendous pressure on the committee that in May 1963 the Fox Hills site was abandoned as the preferred site. It was announced that the cost was much higher than they had believed it to be, the cost of parking, the cost of installing dorms, and also the cost of getting utilities were all said to be more than had been expected[24]. Those that supported the Palos Verdes site saw it as a victory achieved by political representation, and as a sign that the college was going to be built in Palos Verdes.

By 1965, the struggle of Palos Verdes for the college and the Watts rebellion would intertwine and lead to the final site selection that would place the college in Dominguez Hills. The community of Palos Verdes by this time felt that the college was theirs, and all that was needed was to decide on the site and begin construction. By 1965, a negotiation had been settled by the committee in charge of the site selection for the college to start to offer classes in a California Federal Savings Bank. The lease was for the second floor, and the first floor were classes were going to be offer in the second floor and the first floor would serve as a library[25]. Even the staff for college had begun to move closer to the college, everyone was under the assumption that this was a done deal. Even though the value of the land had increased drastically, the community of Palos Verdes did not consider it a problem and wanted to proceed with the college. After the site had been declared abandoned in July, the community of Palos Verdes considered it a political strategy but never felt the college lost.

On August 11, 1965, the event that would change the entire site selection took place as the community of Watts began to rebel and go up in flames. For the community of Watts, this rebellion was their cry against the continuing injustice, the oppression, and the racial attitudes that deliberately kept them from progressing. Understanding that the community of Watts needed to address some serious issues, Governor Brown asked the Legislature that the purchase of 346 acres in Dominguez Hills be approved immediately. This was done to improve the lack of education opportunities that were available. Even if the cost of the land was slightly more than ten million dollars, that was not going to be a problem. Governor Brown had good intentions by making the move to place the school in the proximity of Watts. In fact, in contrary to the past, this was the first time that race had proven to benefit the community of Watts. In a statement made by Governor Brown, he declared that a college in this area would provide access to minority group students in Southern Los Angeles that otherwise did not have access to them[26]. This statement is important in identifying why such a fast action was taken. It was not necessarily taken because it was the right choice but because they needed to do something for a community that was populated by a majority of African Americans and after the events of the Watts rebellion they needed to show that they were addressing the differences that evidently existed between this black neighborhood and white neighborhood.

Governor Brown was not the only one that was enthusiastic about the college being placed in Dominguez Hills, so were several trustees. The trustees believed that the location for the college would bring the black community of South Los Angeles closer to state college system. The trustees much like Governor Brown wanted to address the inequalities that plagued the black community of Watts, but their arguments indeed contained a racial element to them. Also, they believed that the college could serve as an important research center in the study, to address the urban problems. This was not the intention when the campus was going to be placed in Palos Verdes. It is true that these types of challenges did not occur in Palos Verdes, but it was also clear that the majority of the population of Palos Verdes was wealthier and white. Watt’s composition was mostly black and lower class which is a reason that trustees felt that the college would be a valuable tool to give them an insight into the problems of the Watts community.

The college would also adjust the curriculum to fit the new location of the college. Some of the programs available for study were the problems of urban communities, environmental design in city planning, the general area of behavioral sciences and business management[27].  All of these were to address the issues that were going on with the community. Issues that were particular to lower class communities like Watts whose composition was black citizens. In fact, most of the state colleges typically served the community, and this was the hope for this college, that it would be a contributor to the South Los Angeles County.

Furthermore, not all was well as accusations of malpractice against Governor Brown came up. The community of Palos Verdes, still unhappy of having lost the campus continued to demonstrate their remorse about it. At first, they could not understand how the cost of the land was high in Palos Verdes but not in Dominguez Hills when the prices were not that different. Additionally even though the people of Palos Verdes were sympathetic to what had happened in Watts, they did not understand how that had anything to do with the site selection[28]. Furthermore, the people of Palos Verdes knew that there had been an unethical practice because the service area had been extended, for the site at Dominguez to be compliant. All of this was done to address the problems that the Watts rebellion made evident, and it was also done to serve the black communities. The people of Palos Verdes made another assumption that Governor Brown had rewarded the school to the community of Watts to gain black votes[29], that Governor Brown knew how to manipulate the system and wanted to take advantage of the situation and win over the black communities.

The studies behind the causes of the Watts rebellion tend to focus on similar reasons. Such reasons include the excessive use of force by the police, the lack of leadership in the community, the fact that people were living in inadequate houses, and the lack of jobs and access to education. The underlying cause for the rebellion was race and what came with it the hatred, violence, the unawareness of what was going on in this community and the unrecognition of the conditions that the African Americans lived in. In selecting the site for the college, race was the underlying factor that was overlooked to make the final site easier for everyone to accept.

All in all the community of Watts had for a long time been of minor importance. Their living conditions were known but disregarded, as if that was not enough the lack of jobs that were available to the community were minimal. Every day was a struggle for the people of Watts many who depended on government programs to be able to feed their children, which otherwise would not had been possible and they would had gone hungry. Also the community of Watts felt trapped and even though many wanted to leave the community because of the lack of education and opportunities that was not an option. It is evident that other communities were not concern about the situation on Watts, such as Palos Verdes. In Palos Verdes the community other concerns than helping their neighbors. They had the schools, the jobs, the opportunities to succeed. One of the primary reasons was that the majority of the community was white and those that were not white were of higher economic class. If this had been the case in Watts the community would have been without a doubt different and paid more attention to. None the less it was this situation that inevitably led to the rebellion of the community of Watts and the defeat of the community of Palos Verdes when they lost their college.

From the beginning, the college, changed the curriculum to fit the new student body. Programs were started to support minority groups such as African-Americans. Such as Afro-American literature, Afro-American Art, and even as Social Movements: Black Awareness, even courses in African American history were offer. Even though the challenge was to find someone that was qualified to teach the courses. Currently, CSU Dominguez Hills has a student body of about 85% that is identified as a minority either African American, Latino, and or Asian. The University has been the foundation for policies such as affirmative action and tuition-free education, yet these have been abandoned, and the states earlier resolve to solve the racial inequalities seems to have come to an end. Although the University today has a higher attendance rate of minorities, racial and economic disparities remain. White students at the University are still more likely to receive more scholarships and funding. Even more drastic is the fact that black university grads are still more likely to be unemployed than their white peers. Although progress has been made in trying to even out the playing field for all the students, and for the communities huge disparities still exist. This without a doubt means that there is still a lot of work to be done for all people to be finally able to stand next to each other as equals and not be judged by their outwork appearance.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Primary Sources

“High Cost Sited; PV Gets Campus.” FOX HILLS DROPPED AS SITE OF COLLEGE (Inglewood), May 23, 1963, 8-5154 sec. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

Marvin A. Rygh to Leo F. Cain, President South Bay State College. October 16, 1962. From            California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., Redondo Beach,          California.

Master Plan Survey Team, Liaison Committe. “A Master Plan for Higher Education in                    California 1960-1975.” 1960. Accessed May 11, 2016.                                                               http://www.ucop.edu/acadinit/mastplan/MasterPlan1960.pdf.

Mrs. Pat Spingold to Governor Pat Brown. March 01, 1963. From California State University          Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

Mrs. W. Earl Burris to H.C. Vincent, Jr. January 19, 1961. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

“Pacific Unitarian Church.” Alfred J.N. Henriksen to Legislator. January 10, 1965. From                California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

Report On The Economic Impact Of A State College In A Community. Report. 1st ed. Palos Verdes Estates, June 7,1965. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection.

Samuel Hetch to Mr. Roy E Simpson. December 23, 1960. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

Sidney Melnick to Mr. John F. Richardson. October 23, 1961. Inglewood, California. From   California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection.

State Public Works Board. “Statements of Consideration Pertaining to The Palos Verdes                 Site.” California: South Bay, 1962, pg.6-8. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

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Footnotes

[1]“A Quote by Malcolm X.” Goodreads. Accessed May 11, 2016. http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/72282-usually-when-people-are-sad-they-don-t-do-anything-they.

[2] Rice, Richard B., William A. Bullough, and Richard J. Orsi. The Elusive Eden: A New History of California. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

[3] Sides, Josh. 2004. “Straight into Compton: American Dreams, Urban Nightmares, and the Metamorphosis of a Black Suburb”. American Quarterly 56 (3). Johns Hopkins University Press: 591. http://www.jstor.org/swere table/40068235.

[4] Sides, Josh. L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003,75.

[5] Master Plan Survey Team, Liaison Committe. “A Master Plan for Higher Education in California 1960-1975.” 1960. Accessed May 11, 2016. http://www.ucop.edu/acadinit/mastplan/MasterPlan1960.pdf.

[6]Almond, Gabriel. 1974. “Public Higher Education in California, 1950-1970”. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 27 (6). American Academy of Arts & Sciences: 8.

[7]Rothman, Lily. 2015. “50 Years After Watts: The Causes of a Riot.” Time.Com N.PAG. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost(accessed April 18, 2016).

[8] Jackson, Paul S. B. 2014. “The Crisis of the ‘Disadvantaged Child’: Poverty Research, IQ, and Muppet Diplomacy in the 1960s.” Antipode 46, no. 1: 190.Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 21, 2016).

[9]Jackson. . “The Crisis of the ‘Disadvantaged Child’: Poverty Research, IQ, and Muppet Diplomacy in the 1960s.” 193.

[10] Leavitt, Jacqueline, and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris. 1995. “”A DECENT HOME AND A SUITABLE ENVIRONMENT”: DILEMMAS OF PUBLIC HOUSING RESIDENTS IN LOS ANGELES”. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 12 (3). Locke Science Publishing Company, Inc.: 223. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43029164.

[11] Leavitt, Jacqueline, and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris. “”A DECENT HOME AND A SUITABLE ENVIRONMENT”: DILEMMAS OF PUBLIC HOUSING RESIDENTS IN LOS ANGELES”, 226.

[12]STURDIVANT, FREDERICK D., and WALTER T. WILHELM. 1970. “Poverty, Minorities, and Consumer Exploitation”. Social Science Quarterly 50 (4). [University of Texas Press, Wiley]: 1068. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42861304.

[13] Oberschall, Anthony. 1968. “The Los Angeles Riot of August 1965”. Social Problems 15 (3). [Oxford University Press, Society for the Study of Social Problems]: 325. doi:10.2307/799788.

[14]State Public Works Board. “Statements of Consideration Pertaining to The Palos Verdes Site.” California: South Bay, 1962, pg.6-8. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection.

[15] Report On The Economic Impact Of A State College In A Community. Report. 1st ed. Palos Verdes Estates, June 7,1965. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection.

[16] Ibid

[17] Sidney Melnick to Mr. John F. Richardson. October 23, 1961. Inglewood, California. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection.

[18] Marvin A. Rygh to Leo F. Cain, President South Bay State College. October 16, 1962. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., Redondo Beach, California.

[19] Samuel Hetch to Mr. Roy E Simpson. December 23, 1960. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

[20]Mrs. W. Earl Burris to H.C. Vincent, Jr. January 19, 1961. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

[21] “Pacific Unitarian Church.” Alfred J.N. Henriksen to Legislator. January 10, 1965. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

[22]Theodore Hallet to Governor Pat Brown. March 10, 1963. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California.

[23] Mrs. Pat Spingold to Governor Pat Brown. March 01, 1963. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California., Torrance, California.

[24] “High Cost Sited; PV Gets Campus.” FOX HILLS DROPPED AS SITE OF COLLEGE (Inglewood), May 23, 1963, 8-5154 sec. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection., California., Torrance, California

[25] Grenier, Judson. The Rainbow Years, 1960-1985: The First Quarter Century of California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, California. Carson, CA: California State University, Dominguez Hills Foundation, 1987, 6.

[26] Trombley, William. “College Near Watts Moves Step Closer.” October 21, 1965. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection

[27]Ibid

[28] Stewart, Sam. “An Open Letter to Governor Brown.” South Bay Daily Breeze, February 18,1966. From California State University Dominguez Hills, Archives Collection

[29] Ibid

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