The Toro Historical Review

Where History is Considered, Questioned, and Made

Volume 6, Spring 2019

Welcome to Volume 6 of The Toro Historical Review! We are excited to announce that with this volume we have successfully moved from our WordPress site to Open Journal Systems, where our students’ work will be more accessible as well as archived. A special thank you to Dana Ospina, the CSUDH Digital Initiatives Librarian, and the CSU Chancellor’s Office for making this possible!

Volume 6 represents a collection of senior seminar research papers authored in Fall 2018 under the faculty mentorship of Doris Namala. Topically, they explore questions of race and ethnicity in Los Angeles in the late 19th and early to mid 20th centuries, in particular the relationship between marginalized communities and the city’s dominant Anglo power structure. In addition to documenting structural racism and violence, students also thought about resilience and resistance at the community level through the incorporation of what Kelly Lytle Hernandez in City of Inmates: Conquest, Rebellion, and the Rise of Human Caging in Los Angeles, 1771-1965 (2017) calls “the rebel archive.” It is for these reasons that we want to dedicate Volume Six of The Toro Historical Review to the life and legacy of the late Nipsey Hussle, who embodies the structural injustices as well as resistance that our students discuss in their research. The long arc that extends from the Chinese Massacre of 1871 to Nipsey Hussle’s violent death underscores the reality that the marathon for socio-economic and racial justice continues, indeed.

In ‘Homeland Comfort in an Alien Land: the Role of the Huigan in Exclusion Era Los Angeles,’ Chris Edward’s takes a close look at the social, economic, and legal networks of 19th-century Chinese immigrants to Los Angeles, as they built lives for themselves despite massive anti-Chinese lobbying and violence. Salvador Aguilar’s research took him into the on-line archives of Mexican revolutionary and anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón. In ‘¡Revolución Sin Fronteras! Mexican Immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and Magonistas in Los Angeles, 1900-1930,’ Aguilar argues that Flores Magón’s imprisonment in Los Angeles in 1907 had as much to do with Anglo interests in suppressing revolution in Mexico as it did with suppressing Mexican pro-worker voices in their own city. Inspired by his own family history, Taylor Marshall in “African Americans and Unions in Los Angeles’ researched the conflict-ridden and openly racist relationship between labor unions and the African American community at the San Pedro harbor. Finally, Vanessa Rodriguez worked on the forced removal of Mexican-American communities in ‘Chavez Ravine: A Story of Mexican-American Female Resistance in Mid 20th-Century Los Angeles.’ While Rodriguez does discuss the interconnectedness of race, housing, the Red Scare, and city revenues, her ultimate focus is on the resistance of female Chavez Ravine residents and the arguments and actions that they put forth, even if to no avail, in protection of their homes and families. All four papers powerfully trace the structural injustices that align to socio-politically marginalize, economically exploit, and violently oppress Asian-, Mexican-, and African American communities in 19th- and 20th-century Los Angeles. Equally importantly, they also document the communities’ resilience and spirited resistance.

Doris Namala


History 490 Senior Seminar

Sal cover image
“Retrato De Grupo (circa, 1916).” Digital image. Archivo Digital De Ricardo Flores Magon. Accessed February 25, 2019.








¡Revolución Sin Fronteras! Mexican Immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and Magonistas in Los Angeles, 1900-1930

By Salvador Aguilar


Chris Edwards Vol 6.
“Drawing depicting Calle de Los Negros in Los Angeles, later Chinatown, ca.1876.” Photograph. Los Angeles, California. University of Southern California. Libraries: California Historical Society Collection, 1860-1960. (Accessed February 8, 2019)

Homeland Comfort in an Alien Land: The Role of the Huiguan in Exclusion Era Los Angeles

By Christopher Edwards


Taylor Marshall 490 image
San Pedro Longshoremens Union of the Pacific Charter. Seattle: University of Washington, October 14, 1908. From ILWU Archives, Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights Projects: Longshoremens Union of the Pacific Charters. (accessed December 1, 2018).

African Americans and Unions in Los Angeles

By Taylor Marshall


Vanessa Rodriguez image 3
Fig. 2. Aurora Vargas of the Arechiga family being removed from her home by three Los Angeles Sheriff Deputies. Courtesy of Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection, Herald Examiner Collection. 1959.

Chavez Ravine: A Story of Mexican American Female Resistance in Mid- 20th Century Los Angeles

By Vanessa Rodriguez


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